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Part of the terraforming lesson guide of ICAN EduToSpace

Water is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients.


Formula: H₂O

Molar mass: 18.01528 g/mol

Density: 997 kg/m³

Boiling point: 100 °C

Melting point: 0 °C

IUPAC ID: Oxidane, Water

  • Every part of your body needs water. In fact, water makes up 60 percent of body weight.

  • Dehydration happens when there is not enough water in your body.

  • Mild dehydration can cause headaches, nausea and fatigue (tiredness). You may need more water in hot temperatures or if you sweat a lot.

  • If you’re getting enough water you’ll rarely feel thirsty. Your urine will also be clear or slightly yellow. Dark yellow urine is a sign of dehydration.

  • There has been a significant rise in the intake of beverages with added sugars and excess calories on the market. Most are geared to entice children to consume. These added calorie beverages are contributing to overweight and obesity in our children.

  • Drinking more water is one of the simplest things you can do to be healthier.

Why is water important?

Water in space?


Scientists have found an enormous cloud of water vapor floating in space. Located 30 billion miles away in a quasar – a massively powerful cosmic body – the water cloud is estimated to contain at least 140 trillion times the amount of water in all the seas and oceans here on Earth.


Did you know that up to 80% of the water on the International Space Station is recycled? Astronauts living and working 400 km above our planet might prefer not to think about it, but the water they drink is recycled from their colleague’s sweat and exhaled breath – collected as condensation on the Space Station’s walls.


Water is precious on Earth but even more so in space where all drinkable water must be transported from home or recycled. As water is a dense and heavy substance it takes a lot of energy to propel it into space – there is only so much a rocket can carry so the less water we send, the more scientific equipment can be sent in its place. This is one of the reasons why there is no shower on the International Space Station – astronauts wash themselves only with wet-wipes for six months! Astronauts in space often list fresh fruit and a shower as the things they miss most from Earth.


As we explore further from our home planet providing water and food to astronauts will become more and more challenging so just like on Earth reduce, reuse, and recycle is the mantra for off-world explorers and their space agencies.

Terraforming and Water

ICAN EduToSpace knows that terraforming a planet without water is simply impossible. Also, life for Earth-like organisms is impossible without water.


Depending on how much available water we have, the planet can become a Desert planet, a Shallow-oceaned planet, an Earth - like planet or an Oceanic Planet. The best scenario is where we can create an Earth-like planet. Some planets and moons have only very small amounts of water on their surface or trapped in their crust, while others are made over 50% of water. On the other hand, we can supply water by diverting comets, from the Kuiper Belt and from the moons of gas giants.

Volume of Water

Dry worlds


In the Solar System, 4 celestial bodies need extra water: MercuryVenusLuna and Mars

  • Mercury is smalle then Earth, but it is a Mountain Planet, with high altitude differences. You will need more water to fill its deep craters, but given its small size, it will need between 60 and 90% of Earth's water.

  • Venus is as big as Earth, but is more flat. It will become a Shallow-oceaned planet, requiring 20 to 30% of Earth's water.

  • The Moon is far smaller then Earth and overall it has smaller changes in elevation. It might require less then 20% of Earth's water.

  • Mars already has some water under the form of ice, but we don't know how much. Since it is smaller then Earth, it would require less water then Earth has. If we want to replenish its oceans, we might need about 35% of Earth's water, assuming there is no water left on the planet.

Ocean worlds


Earth. All Earth's water is about 1.386 billion cubic meters. If we take all Earth's water and make a spherical object of it, it would have a radius of 693 km (or a diameter of 1385 km). This is comparable to Saturn's moons Rhea and Dione, with Uranus's moon Umbriel and with Pluto's moon Charon.


On the other hand, except for Io, all larger moons of the outer planets and all large Kuiper Belt objects seem to have an excess of water. Some of them appear to be made of over 50% water ice. For any planet or moon that has too much water, there are a few scenarios: 

Video Resources

Water in Media


The Silent Sea (Korean: 고요의 바다; RR: Goyo-eui bada) is a 2021 South Korean sci-fi mystery thriller streaming television series starring Gong Yoo, Bae Doona and Lee Joon.


Set in the future, when the planet suffers from a lack of water and food caused by desertification. Han Yun-Jae (Gong Yoo) is a soldier for the space agency. He is selected for a team, including Song Ji-An (Bae Doo-Na), to travel to the moon. Their mission is to retrieve a mysterious sample from an abandoned research station.

This can be taught to students to give them an interesting point of view when it comes to water as an important resource.

Hydrogen Powered Engine

A hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle (HICEV) is a type of hydrogen vehicle using an internal combustion engine. Hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles are different from hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (which use electrochemical use of hydrogen rather than combustion). Instead, the hydrogen internal combustion engine is simply a modified version of the traditional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine. The absence of carbon means that no CO2 is produced, which eliminates the main greenhouse gas emission of a conventional petroleum engine.


What's in it for ICAN Learners?



- Creative Sparks

- Storytelling


Students will be trained to master their creative communication skills in order think and express countless of ideas to utilize and invent ways of maximizing water.


- Memory Palace

- Picture Describing

- Visualizing

These skills and tech will be an eye-opener in the students hidden abilities to absorb lessons and materials in relation to water generation and mechanism such as hydrogen engines.



- Interview test

- Personality test

We will gauge if the student has the right skill to perform and be admitted to the EDUTOSPACE program of ICAN. Not everyone is immediately qualified but all can be trained for it. High level subjects like terraforming and water power need to be studied by students who have the willingness. 



- Science Trilogy

- Math to Mars

Understanding water availability and creation in space needs a lot of math and science knowledge required. We at ICAN are ready to impart our discoveries and techniques to fulfill these.



- Narrative

- Descriptive

- Pixar in a Box

We will encourage our students to display their researches and discoveries through publications and video creations such as animations. This is to allow others to give them attention.

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