Exoplanets, also known as extrasolar planets, are planets that orbit stars other than our Sun. These planets are located outside of our solar system, and they can vary greatly in size, composition, and other characteristics.
Exoplanets are typically detected by observing the star they orbit. The most common method is the transit method, where astronomers observe a slight decrease in the brightness of the star as the planet passes in front of it. Another method is the radial velocity method, which involves measuring the tiny wobbles of the star as the planet's gravity pulls on it.
Exoplanets can be found in various parts of our galaxy, including the Milky Way. As of September 2021, over 4,500 exoplanets have been confirmed, and thousands more are being studied and discovered through ongoing research and observations.
The discovery of exoplanets has greatly expanded our understanding of the universe and the potential for other habitable planets beyond our solar system. Scientists are continuing to study and learn more about these fascinating planets, including their composition, atmospheric conditions, and potential for supporting life.