Dark matter is a mysterious substance that makes up about 85% of the matter in the universe. Despite its prevalence, dark matter cannot be directly observed, and its properties are still not fully understood.
The evidence for dark matter comes from observations of the movement of stars and galaxies in the universe. Scientists have found that the amount of visible matter in a galaxy, such as stars and gas, cannot account for the gravitational forces that are observed. This discrepancy is explained by the presence of dark matter, which has a gravitational effect on visible matter and holds galaxies together.
While dark matter cannot be directly observed, its presence can be inferred through its gravitational effects. Scientists use a variety of techniques, such as measuring the rotation curves of galaxies or studying the bending of light around massive objects, to study the properties of dark matter.
One of the biggest mysteries surrounding dark matter is its composition. Scientists have proposed many different theories about what dark matter could be, including particles such as WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) and axions, but none of these have been definitively proven.
In addition to its gravitational effects, dark matter may have played a key role in the formation of structures in the universe, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. Scientists are studying the distribution of dark matter in the universe to better understand its role in the formation and evolution of the cosmos.
The study of dark matter is an active area of research in astrophysics and particle physics. Understanding the properties of dark matter could provide insights into fundamental physics and the nature of the universe, and could have practical applications in fields such as cosmology and space exploration.